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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 135-140

Risk factors for falls among elderly: A community-based study

1 Department of Community Medicine, BGS Global Institute of Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of M S Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Savita S Patil
Department of Community Medicine, BGS Global Institute of Medical Sciences, Uttarahalli Main Road, Kengeri, Bengaluru - 560 056, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2278-344X.160867

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Context: Majority of falls are multifactorial and results from a complex interplay of predisposing and precipitating factors. Falls and their sequelae are potentially preventable. Aims: To determine the risk factors for falls among the elderly. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study in urban part of Bengaluru. Subjects and Methods: Study conducted for a period of 1-year, among elderly population 60 years and above, were residents since 1-year. Complete enumeration by census methodology applied. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect information about falls. Statistical Analysis Used: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression employed using SPSS version 18. Results: Of the 416 elderly persons studied, prevalence of falls rate 29.8%. The rate of fall for medical factors varied 33.3% diabetes mellitus to 71.4% foot problems. Among the people with behavioral factors, higher fall rate seen among those who were underweight 77.7%, abnormal finding in balance test 59.5%, abnormal gait 51.4%, low Mini Mental State Examination score 50%, Obese 50%, those who had difficulty with steps/stairs 45.3%, habit of smoking 45.1%, low activities of daily living score 45.4%, persons with abnormal get up and go test 43.8% and those who were on alcohol 43.1%. Logistic regression analysis revealed elderly with backache, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, visual problem, difficulty in getting on/off toilet, smoking, cataract, TCA's loose slipper outside home were at higher risk of fall, was found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: Majority of the falls in the elderly are due to medical, behavioral factors which are predictable and preventable.

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