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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 174-179

Reflected images processing and the diseases of the brain

1 Department of Neurology, Faculty Block, Neurocenter, NIMHANS, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Neurology, NIMHANS, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra
Faculty Block, Neurocenter, NIMHANS, Bengaluru - 560 029, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijhas.IJHAS_27_18

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OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study reflected image processing defects in patients with dementia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with memory complaint with Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE) score of 20 seen in the last 5 years were evaluated for mirror agnosia and mirror-image agnosia. Visual acuity was checked and corrected. A 45 cm × 45 cm plain mirror was used. It was kept at 30-cm distance from the patient. Their ability to recognize the mirror was confirmed. They were asked to identify reflected objects, ornaments, dress, self-image, image of caregiver, and two each of famous, smiling, crying, and novel faces. RESULTS: A total number of patients with memory complaint were 512 and vascular dementia were 211. Others = 301 patients who had features suggestive of apraxia and agnosias = 69. Among the 69 patients, 65.2% were male and 34.8% female, mean age was 62.5. Disease wise distribution is frontotemporal dementia: 24.64%. Vascular dementia: 21.84%. Alzheimer's disease (AD): 20.29%. Unclassified: 14.49%. Mixed: 14.49%. diffuse Lewy body disease: 2.89%. Cortico basal degeneration syndrome (CBGD): 1.45%. The pattern of reflected image processing abnormality is mirror agnosia: 9 patients. Mirror-image agnosia: 11 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AD showed wide variety of apraxias and mirror agnosia. Those with mirror-image agnosia did not show apraxias. In both groups, females were dominated. There is a clear delineation of features in patients with mirror agnosia and mirror-image agnosia. Mirror-image and mirror agnosia in degenerative dementias are not reported in the literature.

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