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   2017| October-December  | Volume 6 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 12, 2017

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Leakage radiation and workplace monitoring of a cobalt-60 teletherapy facility in South-West Nigeria: Is the dose significant?
Michael Onoriode Akpochafor, Akintayo Daniel Omojola, Muhammad Yaqub Habeebu, Samuel Olaolu Adeneye, Chibuzor Bede Madu, Moses Adebayo Aweda, Temitope Orotoye
October-December 2017, 6(4):215-221
BACKGROUND: Cobalt-60 (Co-60) teletherapy machines are still in use in most developing countries because of their minimal power requirements, reduced operational cost, and since the source does not vary in energy, the amount of quality assurance required to ensure “good beam” is dramatically reduced. Although as the machine wear, the chances of leakage radiation increase. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if leakage radiation at 5 cm and 1 m from the Co-60 teletherapy source head is within the acceptable tolerance limit set by the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) and to determine if controlled and supervised areas within working hours were within the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) limit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The machine used was a Theratron® Phoenix Cobalt 60 Teletherapy machine. A RadEye B20-ER Multi-Purpose Survey Meter was used to measure mean time-average dose rate (TADR) at various points in the controlled and supervised areas. Instantaneous dose rate (IDR) for leakage radiation was measured at 5 cm from the source head using the same Survey Meter and a measuring tape. In addition, measurement was made at 1 m from the normal treatment distance in patient and nonpatient planes. RESULTS: The mean TADR at beam OFF position in the controlled area at four different areas was 2.15 ± 0.48 μSv/h, which was <7.5 μSv/h IPEM limit and mean TADR in the supervised area at six different areas was 1.70 ± 0.45 μSv/h, which was also <2.5 μSv/h IPEM limit. The percentage IDR leakage radiation at beam OFF position at 5 cm and 1 m was within 200 μSv/h and 20 μSv/h IEC tolerance limit, respectively. Percentage leakage radiation at beam ON in patient plane was below the maximum and average IEC tolerance limit and nonpatient planes at 1 m was below 0.5% IEC limit. CONCLUSION: Supervised and controlled areas were within the acceptable range. Leakage radiation was within the tolerance limit.
  4,185 269 -
How vulnerable are our adolescents to noncommunicable diseases? A school-based study in Kolkata
Aparajita Dasgupta, Anubrata Karmakar, Lina Bandyopadhyay, Shobhit Garg, Bobby Paul, Atanu Dey
October-December 2017, 6(4):199-203
BACKGROUND: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for two-third of all deaths in India, and its risk factors are on the rise among adolescents. All lifestyle-related risk factors such as unhealthy diet, tobacco and alcohol consumption, low physical activity (LPA), and high screen time (HST) use are modifiable. With this background, a study was conducted to assess the magnitude and predictors of risk factors of NCDs among adolescents in Kolkata. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 276 adolescents of 8th–10th standard in a government-aided boys' school in Kolkata in September–October 2016. Data were collected on sociodemographic profile and lifestyle-related practices along with anthropometry and blood pressure measurement for each student. Analysis was done with the help of SPSS version 16.0 using descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 276 students, 29% ever used tobacco. More than 80% of participants failed to meet the recommended guideline for fruit and vegetable intake, around 80% consumed soft drinks and junk foods regularly, 26% had LPA, 55% were HST user, 23.6% were overweight or obese, and 18.8% were prehypertensive. Multivariable regression revealed the factors associated with being overweight included unhealthy soft drinks intake habit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] confidence interval [CI]: 4.39 [1.42–13.57]), LPA (AOR [CI]: 6.84 [3.53–13.25]), and HST (AOR [CI]: 2.89 [1.42–5.87]) and those with prehypertension were age (AOR [CI]: 2.62 [1.68–4.10]), LPA (AOR [CI]: 6.19 [2.68–14.29]), HST (AOR [CI]: 3.91 [1.56–9.86]), and overweight [AOR (CI): 8.62 (3.04–24.46)]. CONCLUSION: The findings may be used in developing policies to generate awareness about the modifiable lifestyle-related risk factors of NCDs among adolescents.
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Tobacco use behavior among construction site workers of Delhi, India
Mamta Parashar, Shridhar Dwivedi, Mitasha Singh, Bilkish Patavegar, Milan Bhardwaj
October-December 2017, 6(4):210-214
BACKGROUND: Despite various initiatives, menace of tobacco problem still remains a cause of concern globally. Job of construction site workers is primarily monotonous which predisposes to tobacco habit. OBJECTIVE: Assessing behavior regarding tobacco consumption among construction site workers of Delhi. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was carried out among all construction site workers of Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research and associated HAH centenary hospital, New Delhi. Study included 172 workers for a period of 6 months. RESULTS: Majority (91%) were tobacco users, and out of these, 49% were using smokeless tobacco, 29% were consuming bidi/cigarette, and 22% were consuming both. Tobacco as cause of cancer was named by 55.8%, while other diseases named were cough (39.5%), tuberculosis (17.4%), and other diseases (25.6%). Warning labels lead to the thought of quitting tobacco in 62.8%. Most common place (97.4%) for tobacco consumption was workplace. CONCLUSION: Hence the views of workers are of great importance before implementing any anti-tobacco measures at workplace.
  2,544 264 -
Pharmacy student's practice surrounding health issues of their family: A cross-sectional survey
D Raja, KV Sruthy, Ponnusankar Sivasankaran
October-December 2017, 6(4):204-209
INTRODUCTION: Globally, pharmacists play an important role in health-care system. The academic knowledge and the clinical skills that pharmacy student undertakes can be used to improve patient care and the medication use, especially in chronic conditions. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to find out the extent of pharmacy students' involvement in addressing the medical related issues in their own family. METHODS: Students' extent and involvement in Addressing their Family member Medical Condition Questionnaire (SAFMCQ) was developed and validated. Pretest, pilot-tests and test-retest were performed with samples of 34, 108 and 34 respectively. SAFMCQ was used to collect responses from selected students of pharmacy colleges in South India. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: From the study, we found that M.Pharm Pharmacy Practice students are involved more in attending family member health issues. We observed mixed responses from the PharmD and poor practice among B.Pharm students. CONCLUSION: In general, staying away from family members and not being familiar with their health status are the reasons for pharmacy students' inadequate practice in addressing the health issues of their family members. We conclude that pharmacy students in India can improve their interest and practice surrounding the health of the family members.
  2,147 209 -
Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome presenting as pancytopenia: A rare case report
Pravesh Agarwal, Subhash Chand, Deveshwar Pandey
October-December 2017, 6(4):228-229
Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome or selective Vitamin B12 malabsorption with proteinuria or megaloblastic anemia 1 is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. The main feature of this condition is megaloblastic anemia due to Vitamin B12 deficiency with or without persistent proteinuria (with no signs of kidney disease). The disease appears from 4 months up to several years after birth. The cause is a defect in the receptor of the Vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex of the ileal enterocytes. Management includes lifelong parenteral Vitamin B12, and with this, the patients remain healthy for decades. However, the proteinuria persists. We present a 14-year-old male child suffering from this syndrome presenting to us with pancytopenia due to Vitamin B12 deficiency and proteinuria with normal kidneys. There is hardly any case report of this syndrome from North India.
  2,079 160 -
Continuing education offerings and conferences among state occupational therapy association
Hon K Yuen, Whitney W Stippler, Kelsey B Burke, Victoria T McClellan, Brian J Dudgeon
October-December 2017, 6(4):222-227
CONTEXT: Limited information exists in the literature about how state occupational therapy (OT) associations fulfill their educational mission. AIMS: The purpose of this study is to explore and seek a better understanding of how state OT associations fulfill the provision of professional development activities through continuing education (CE) offerings and conferences. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This descriptive study used a thematic survey design. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eight presidents of state OT associations participated in an interview and answered open-ended questions related to CE opportunities their association offered. In addition, six current and past state OT association board members from different states participated in providing credibility and confirmatory feedback. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Three themes emerged from the content analysis: (1). Changing models of CE delivery; (2). Changing management strategies on CE delivery; and (3). Weighing costs and benefits of delegation and partnership with constituents. CONCLUSIONS: As revealed from the study findings, state OT associations are developing diverse models and management strategies to offer their CE delivery to meet member and nonmember needs. At the same time, they are weighing the cost and benefits of each of these methods and strategies before making decisions on which ones to adopt long-term for providing CE.
  1,895 152 -
Assessment of quality of life among the health workers of primary health centers managed by a nongovernment organization in Karnataka, India: A case study
Rajeshwari Bangalore Sathyananda, Usha Manjunath
October-December 2017, 6(4):240-244
BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being as experienced and perceived by individuals and communities. Measuring QOL has a number of implications in a wide variety of contexts including healthcare. Studies have shown that World Health Organization (WHO) QOL-BREF is a quick and an effective tool (as the WHO QOL-100) in capturing the results with respect to key four domains. Healthcare services, in general, are human intensive in terms of emergencies, emotionality, and relationships which could affect grass root health worker's QOL negatively, especially in challenging working environments. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the QOL among health workers of primary health centers (PHCs) managed by public private partnership in Karnataka State. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out by applying WHO QOL-BREF to 70 health workers from 24 PHCs in 21 Districts of Karnataka and the results were analyzed. Pearson's correlation was conducted to assess the agreement level; paired t-test and ANOVA to compare differences between the domains. RESULTS: Analysis of domain-specific results and gender differences showed that women were more satisfied with physical health domain and men more satisfied with psychological health domain. The least satisfaction was seen in their opportunity for leisure activities and the highest satisfaction was with their ability to perform daily living activities. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated moderate levels of QOL among the respondents. WHO QOL-BREF is a useful measure to assess, monitor and improve employees' QOL.
  1,824 192 -
Cone beam computed tomographic evaluation of impacted mesiodens and central incisor as sequelae of trauma: A short case report
Santosh R Patil, Ravi Gudipaneni, Kuraym Khalid Kuraym Alenazi, Ibrahim A Al-Zoubi, Krishna A Rao, Jothish Ravi, Azhar Iqbal
October-December 2017, 6(4):237-239
A supernumerary tooth is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an extra tooth in addition to the normal number of deciduous or permanent teeth. Mesiodens is one of the common supernumerary teeth presenting in the midline between the two central incisors. The presence of mesiodens may lead to numerous consequences such as disturbance of eruption, crowding, displacement, root resorption of adjacent teeth, and formation of a cyst. We report here cone beam computed tomographic evaluation of mesiodens and impacted incisor in a young boy.
  1,642 151 1
Outer auditory canal cholesteatoma
Hitesh Verma, Arjun Dass, Surinder K Singhal, Nitin Gupta
October-December 2017, 6(4):230-232
Outer auditory canal cholesteatoma (OACC) is a rare form of cholesteatoma of temporal bone, and it accounts for 0.1%–0.5% of new patients at clinics of otolaryngologist. We are presenting here a rare case of cholesteatoma of OAC where excision was done with canal wall down mastoidectomy with preservation of tympanic membrane and structure medial to it and reconstruction of OAC with conchal cartilage. Complete disease removal with soft wall reconstruction is a viable method for OACC.
  1,269 126 1
A compulsion to throw away prescribed tablets in a case of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder with attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder
Suhas Chandran, M Kishor, T Navya Spurthi, TS S Rao, Rajesh Raman
October-December 2017, 6(4):233-236
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most complex and disabling disorders presenting to a hospital setting. Its symptomatology can mimic other psychiatric disorders, especially in children, making it confusing for the treatment team. It is often associated with comorbidities such as tics, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hereby report an instance of ADHD-OCD co-occurrence in a 16-year-old boy, who presented with a 9-year history of restlessness, obsessions of contamination, symmetry, causing harm to others, setting fire, magical thoughts, with compulsions of washing, checking, ordering and arranging, counting and repeating, swallowing stones, mental rituals, and self-mutilating behavior. Independent of these repetitive rituals, there were multiple instances throughout his schooling where he would be in disciplinary trouble due to his hyperactivity, disorganization, and inattentiveness. The resulting distress from all the above symptomatology had led to two suicidal attempts. His presentation to us was the index presentation to a psychiatric setting, and following initiation of treatment, he developed a compulsion to throw away his prescribed tablets. The interesting aspects of the phenomenology and management will be discussed.
  1,167 107 -
World health organization emphasizes for the development of the priority list of medical devices for the management of cancers
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
October-December 2017, 6(4):245-246
  871 97 -
Economic costs of adverse drug reaction: Concerns in methodology
Suhas Chandran, M Kishor
October-December 2017, 6(4):247-248
  760 94 -