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   2021| April-June  | Volume 10 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 18, 2021

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Schiff base ligands derived from 4-chloro-6-methylpyrimidin-2-amine: Chemical synthesis, bactericidal activity and molecular docking studies against targeted microbial pathogen
Kollur Shiva Prasad, Chandan Shivamallu, SM Gopinath, Chandrashekar Srinivasa, Chandan Dharmashekara, P Sushma, Anisha S Jain, P Ashwini
April-June 2021, 10(2):157-166
BACKGROUND: Schiff base is also known as imine or azomethine that typically contain nitrogen analog of an aldehyde or ketone in which the carbonyl group (C = O) has been replaced by an imine or azomethine group. In this study, we describe the synthesis of three Schiff base ligands, which are prepared by the condensation of 4-chloro-6-methyl pyrimidine-2-amine with various aromatic aldehydes and those synthesized compounds treated against various microbial pathogens, they were also supported by In silico approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The synthesized compounds (L1-L3) were characterized by analytical and spectral techniques. In silico molecular docking, the analysis was carried out with the three Schiff base ligands against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacterial and fungal outer membrane proteins to check for the binding affinity and molecular interactions. RESULTS: All the synthesized compounds were treated against various microbial pathogens, and the obtained microbial inhibitor results were docked against the synthesized compounds to understand their best interaction studies. The results revealed that the ligands have considerably shown lower binding energy and good hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions against various microorganisms. CONCLUSION: All three Schiff base ligands compounds were examined In vitro for their antibacterial and antifungal potentials. Furthermore, the prepared compounds were exposed to in silico studies against selected bacterial proteins. Thus, the present study could be valuable in the discovery of new potent antimicrobial agents.
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Postoperative custom-made submandibular two-part silicone prosthesis
Smita Nayak, Prasanna Kumar Lenka, Indrani Bhattacharya, Rajesh Kumar Das
April-June 2021, 10(2):169-172
Any defect or loss of cosmesis to the face and neck area leads to greater impact on self esteem and psychology. Post operative Squamous cell carcinomas at sub mandibular area comprise a thrashing in cosmesis, difficulty in verbal communication and swallowing. A 45-years woman undergone surgical intervention rehabilitated with sub mandibular magnetic retained prosthesis. Notable improvement observed in score of appearance, pain, mood and swallowing through University of Washington Quality of life (UW-QOL) questionnaire post fitment of prosthesis.
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A case of the unanticipated difficult airway where bougie was used as a conduit over I gel as a rescue airway for one-lung ventilation under direct vision of fiberoptic bronchoscopy
Shalendra Singh, Arijit Ray, Deepak Dwivedi, Saurabh Sud, Priya Taank
April-June 2021, 10(2):173-174
The basic foremost step for any surgery done under general anesthesia is to place an endotracheal tube (ETT) into the trachea. Placement of a definitive airway is vital to maintain a critical level of oxygen in the end organ during apnea time. There are multiple ways revealed in the literature to place ETT into the trachea. Sometimes, placement can be achieved speedily at the critical time with the experience of anesthesiologist and availability of different airway adjutants. Here, we describe a case of ETT intubation using bougie as a conduit over I gel under direct vision of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in a thymic enhancing mass.
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Does higher consumption of white rice increase the risk of type 2 diabetes?
Chidiebere Emmanuel Okechukwu
April-June 2021, 10(2):175-176
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From subclavian vein to contralateral internal jugular vein: Central venous catheter malposition is still not uncommon
Sharmishtha Pathak, Ashutosh Kaushal, Priyanka Gupta, Saurav Singh
April-June 2021, 10(2):177-178
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Acral limb ischemia postarterial cannulation in a critically ill COVID-19 patient
Shalendra Singh, Sravan Reddy, Nipun Gupta, Vikas Marwah
April-June 2021, 10(2):178-180
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Anesthetic management of a case of post tubercular unilateral total lung fibrosis undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Amiya Kumar Barik, Ashutosh Kaushal, Ajit Kumar, Jaharan Mohanta
April-June 2021, 10(2):180-182
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Severity of fatigue among patients with Guillain–Barre syndrome
Uma Krishnan Namboodhri, Renukadevi Mahadevan, Tejaswini Santhosh
April-June 2021, 10(2):182-183
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Obesity, COVID-19 severity, and yoga
Prasanna Kumar Santhekadur
April-June 2021, 10(2):184-185
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Key population of HIV should not be forgotten in Africa's COVID-19 response: Nigeria as a case study
Folami Justin Balogun, Yusuff Adebayo Adebisi, Pascal Akahome
April-June 2021, 10(2):185-187
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Kolaviron ameliorates toxic effects of aluminum chloride on the hippocampus of fetal Wistar rats in utero: Biochemical and ultrastructural observations
Susan Folashade Lewu, Bernard Ufuoma Enaibe
April-June 2021, 10(2):115-122
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to investigate the biochemical and ultrastructural effects of kolaviron (Kv) on the hippocampus of fetal Wistar rats exposed to aluminum chloride (AlCl3) toxicity in utero. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty female Wistar rats were selected at random and mated. Following confirmation of mating, pregnant rats were assigned into five groups (n = 5). Controls: Group A received distilled water; Group B: 0.6 ml of corn oil; Group C: 200 mg/kg of Kv; Group D: 100 mg/kg of AlCl3 and Group E 100 mg/kg of AlCl3 and 200 mg/kg of Kv. Administration was done from days 8-10 and 15-17 of gestation during the 2nd and 3rd weeks respectively. Biochemical analyses were investigated to assess oxidative stress levels, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examined ultrastructural changes. Pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 20 of gestation; fetuses, their brains, and hippocampi were excised, respectively. Hippocampal tissues of fetuses were homogenized in 0.25 M of sucrose solution for biochemical assay while some were fixed in 2.5% phosphate-buffered saline-based glutaraldehyde for TEM. RESULTS: Elevated levels of Al, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and interleukin 6 were observed in the hippocampi of fetuses whose mothers received AlCl3. TEM revealed loss of nuclear membrane and increased condensation of chromatin materials in the same group. However, significant reduction of these enzymes including improved ultrastructural alterations were observed in the fetal hippocampus of the AlCl3 + Kv-treated group. CONCLUSION: This study showed that Kv significantly reduced neurodegenerative effects induced by AlCl3 in the hippocampii of fetal Wistar rats in utero probably owing to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
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Is the panoramic radiography sufficient for detecting the relationship of the posterior maxillary teeth with maxillary sinus floor? A retrospective study comparative with cone-beam computed tomography
Fatma Busra Dogan, Bilgün Çetin, Faruk Akgünlü
April-June 2021, 10(2):123-128
BACKGROUND: The topographical description of the relationship between the upper posterior roots and the maxillary sinus is essential for decreasing the risk of complications during surgical or nonsurgical procedures and to detect possible sinus pathologies. For the evaluation, the most commonly used imaging method is panoramic radiography. This study aims to investigate the reliability of panoramic radiography according to cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), which is extremely successful in the three-dimensional evaluation, by examining the relationship between the maxillary teeth and the sinus floor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 350 teeth were analyzed according to their topographic relationship to the maxillary sinus using panoramic and CBCT images. Two parameters were used to evaluate the safety of the panoramic radiograph on the posterior maxillary region. First, the topographic relationship was classified according to the criteria organized by Shahbazian et al. and compared both the imaging methods by the McNemar–Bowker test. Then, the diagnostic reliability test was performed for panoramic radiography according to the topographic classification. Second, 248 linear vertical measurements were made between the apexes of the roots and the sinus floor in the maxillary posterior region and then compared between the panoramic and the CBCT images. RESULTS: The McNemar–Bowker test showed that there was a significant relationship between the two imaging methods in both the dental groups (premolar teeth P = 0.030 and molar teeth P = 0.014). Furthermore, a total of 124 measurements were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U-test and no statistically significant difference was found between the two imaging methods (P = 0.576). CONCLUSION: Although reliable results were obtained in panoramic radiographs when compared to CBCT images, panoramic radiography may not be sufficient before the surgical procedure. Nevertheless, when the posterior maxillary teeth are not too close to the sinus floor, panoramic radiographs can be used safely for the initial diagnostic evaluation.
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Relation between dermatoglyphic patterns and intelligence quotient and socioeconomic status in healthy children and children with intellectual disability: An observational study
S V S G Nirmala, Namratha Tharay, Sivakumar Nuvvula
April-June 2021, 10(2):129-133
AIM: To measure the intelligence quotient (IQ) and documentation of dermatoglyphic patterns of normal and children with intellectually disability aged between the 5-11 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted in two schools and the Red Cross Society. A total of 100 children aged between 5-11 years equally owed into two groups based on IQ using adaptive covariate randomization. Ravens Progressive Color Matrices were used to measure IQ of the children, whereas IQ of intellectually disabled (ID) children was measured by the Seguin board; both the scales are nonverbal intelligence scales, respectively. Bilateral palmar and fingerprints were obtained on the bond paper by the ink method using the rolling technique. Prints thus purchased were analyzed for the dermatoglyphic variables using a magnification lens and are read based on Cummins and Midlo classification The children were also classified according to the socioeconomic status of their parents and whether any correlation exists between IQ and socioeconomic status exists was assessed. The analysis performed by using the crosstabs and Chi-square tests for fingertip patterns and creases. For ATD angle, (a, t, d Triradii Angle) t-test for the equality of means performed. For statistical significance, two-tailed probability values of <0.05 considered as significant. RESULTS: Among the children with below-average IQ and also the ID children difference in dermatoglyphic patterns exists in between digits I, II, IV, and V of the right hand and digits I, II, III, and V of the left side. CONCLUSION: Dermatoglyphics can consider as a preliminary noninvasive approach for the determination of IQ. Furthermore, it plays an imperative role, especially in distinguishing genetic intellectual disabilities. There was no association between socioeconomic status and IQ of children.
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Cervical spine range of motion and joint position sense in elite male cricketers: An observational study
Susan A Reid, Johnathan Fornasier, Daniel Redrup, Shreya McLeod
April-June 2021, 10(2):134-140
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the current study were to (1) establish baseline data for cervical range of motion (CROM) and joint position sense (JPS) in elite male cricketers, (2) determine whether these players had differences when compared to healthy adults, and (3) establish a reference set of values for future investigations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Design: Repeated measures, observational study. Participants: Thirty-one elite cricketers, aged 18–35 years. Setting: Cricket New South Wales at the Sydney Cricket Ground, Sydney, Australia. Outcome measures: Cervical rotation was measured with a CROM device and JPS using the joint position error (JPE) laser method with two protocols: repositioning to straight ahead and to 80% of maximum rotation. RESULTS: Mean right and left rotation were less than healthy normals by 6.5° (P < 0.001) and 4.2° (P < 0.001), respectively. In the preseason, 26% of cricketers had JPE >4.5° repositioning to straight ahead, which is 11% greater than the general population and 87% had JPE >4.5° when repositioning to 80% rotation. Postseason, deficits in CROM were unchanged. Fewer players (22%) had JPE >4.5° when repositioning to straight ahead however JPE when repositioning to 80% of rotation increased 1° for both directions (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to the authors' hypothesis, preliminary findings from this study demonstrated that elite male cricketers in this cohort had deficits in CROM and JPS, compared to normal healthy adults. This has clinical implications for the use of physical therapies targeting JPS and restoring CROM pre- and post-head and neck injury. Therapists should account for preexisting, baseline asymmetries in the range of motion and JPE in male cricketers. Further research needs to validate these findings across adolescent and female cricketers and explore the interaction between cervical spine parameters, cricket biomechanics, and head or neck injury risk.
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Nondevice-assisted therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease with severe complications revisited for resource-restricted setup
Chandra Sadanandavalli Retnaswami, Anupama R Pai, P Chithra, CS Vidhya Annapoorni, Jogin Vargese
April-June 2021, 10(2):141-144
INTRODUCTION: A good percentage of patients with parkinsonism land up with moderate-to-severe complications after 5 years of treatment which causes severe disability to patients and caregivers. Device-assisted treatments do not always give consistent results and availability and affordability is also a problem. Therefore, we, in our charitable hospital, tried in six consecutive patients the role of liquid Levodopa Carbidopa Ascorbic acid Solution therapy which is relatively cheap and does not need technical expertise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who qualified as primary Parkinsonism and had severe complications as per the UPDR Section IV scoring and were considered unsuitable for device-assisted treatment options for various reasons were included for the study. They were given the LCAS therapy and scores repeated at 7 days and 4–6-month follow-up. RESULTS: All patients had improved in UPDR IV scores, Everyday Abilities Scale for India, Zarit's score, and GDR. One patient had hyponatremia and all others remained stable at 4–6-month follow-up with 75% or less of their previous dose. All the parameters under dyskinesias and three of four parameters under fluctuations showed sustained improvement with significant P value at 1 week and 4–6 months in all cases. CONCLUSION LCAS is an easily accessible, cost effective treatment option which significantly improves quality of life in patients, who are not eligible or cannot afford Deep Brain Stimulation.
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Drivers, barriers, benefits, and perceived dangers of the use of COVID-19 biosecurity protective items in a medically challenged environment of a rural hospital in Eastern Nigeria
Gabriel Uche Iloh, Ikechukwu Vincent Obi, Augustine Obiora Ikwudinma, Ekene Agartha Emeka, Agwu Nkwa Amadi
April-June 2021, 10(2):145-151
INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus has infected and affected millions of life across the globe. As the burden of COVID-19 continues to rise, compliance with the use of COVID-19 biosecurity protective items by the public is critical in safeguarding interperson transmissions of the virus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out from April to May 2020 on a cross-section of 400 adult Nigerians in a rural hospital in eastern Nigeria. Data collection was done using structured, pretested, and researcher-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire elicited information on drivers, barriers, benefits, and perceived dangers of the use of biosecurity protective items (face masks and alcohol-based hand sanitizers). RESULTS: The study participants were aged 18–84 years with a mean age of 53 ± 11.6 years. There were 214 (53.5%) females. The most common driver of use of COVID-19 biosecurity protective items was government public health legislative directives (400/400) (100.0%). The most common barrier was a denial of the existence of COVID-19 (359/400) (89.8%). The most common benefits were protection from contracting COVID-19 (400/400) (100.0%) and prevent spreading the infection to others (400/400) (100.0%). The most commonly perceived dangers were suffocation (400/400) (100.0%) and hand irritation (377/400) (94.3%) for face masks and hand sanitizers, respectively. CONCLUSION: The most common driver was government public health legislative directives. The most common barrier was a denial of the existence of COVID-19, while the predominant benefits were protection from contracting COVID-19 and prevent spreading the infection to others. The most commonly perceived dangers were suffocation and hand irritation for masks and sanitizers, respectively. There is a need to address the factors that constitute barriers and perceived dangers to the use of COVID-19 biosecurity items. Factors that drive the use of COVID-19 biosecurity items should be the focus of interest to contain the spread of COVID-19.
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Anthropometric measures in risk prediction for type 2 diabetes mellitus? – A cross-sectional study in regular athletes
Shambo Samrat Samajdar, Shatavisa Mukherjee, Sabnam Ara Begum, Sumalya Sen, Santanu Kumar Tripathi
April-June 2021, 10(2):152-156
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been an increasing problem globally, and attempts have been made to identify the best anthropometric predictor of chronic diseases in various populations. Owing to increased cost and methodological complexities, imaging diagnostics has been a challenge in resource constraint settings. Thus, anthropometric markers have been assumed to be a better predictor in this regard. Addressing the dearth of research in this arena from this part of the country, the present study was conducted in regular footballers who were assessed for their anthropometric parameters as a probable risk indicator for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 136 athletes, who were screened for risk factors and assessed for their measures such as height, weight, body circumferences, fat level, skeletal muscle, and skinfold thickness. Baseline laboratory investigations of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, fasting glucose, and insulin were done. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was assessed for all the participants. A 3-day dietary recall history was obtained from all respondents for calculation of total nutrient intake. RESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 13.96 ± 1.91 years. While body mass index was recorded in normal range for 41 participants, 94 were in the “under” range and 1 was overweight. The mean waist, hip, and mid-thigh circumferences were 65.8 cm, 72.15 cm, and 43.86 cm, respectively. HOMA-IR derangement was noted in 11 participants. Increased fasting glucose and SGOT levels were noted in 9 participants, respectively. CONCLUSION: Anthropometric measures may serve as an easy and inexpensive marker for T2DM prediction. However, assessment of its utility across genders and various subgroup populations mandates further research.
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Diagnostically fighting the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: A general perspective
Pushkal Sinduvadi Ramesh, Brunda Arun, Devananda Devegowda
April-June 2021, 10(2):108-114
The recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 has brought human survival and existence to an all-time low. The infection seems to be uncontrollable, and the scientific community has no answer yet. The only means of keeping the infection under the check is the effective usage of both serological and molecular diagnostic testing. The article provides the readers with the basic understanding of the current pandemic situation and educates them regarding the same. It is essential that members of all the scientific background are aware of the current pandemic at its basic level. This would direct the scientific community to work toward warding off the pandemic which is the need of the hour.
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Can dermatoglyphics predict dental caries? A review
Shreyasi Roy, Jaydip Sen
April-June 2021, 10(2):95-107
Dermatoglyphics is the study of epidermal ridges present on the palm, sole, fingers, and toes. Apart from judicial and legal investigations, it has also proved to be valuable in the diagnosis of many diseases, especially of genetic origin. The etiology of dental caries proves to be multifactorial. Although it is thought to be of microbial origin, several researches have proved it to have genetic predisposition. This has urged many researchers to use dermatoglyphics as a tool for screening dental caries. However, there exist a limited number of studies that have attempted to evaluate the association of dermatoglyphics with dental caries. The aim of the present review is to systematically identify, review and appraise available literature that evaluated an association of different dermatoglyphic variables with dental caries. In-depth screening of the titles, abstracts, and full papers yielded 48 studies pertaining to this issue. From the selected studies, we inferred that the presence of higher number of whorls and lesser number of loop patterns can predict the susceptibility of dental caries among the participants.
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Ensuring safe handling of the dead bodies of people succumbing to coronavirus disease-2019 infection
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
April-June 2021, 10(2):167-168
The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in the disruption of the lives of everyone, with marginalized and high-risk population groups being the most affected. As the transmission of the virus is predominantly through close contact or respiratory droplets or fomites, it becomes a careful consideration to carefully handle the bodies of the people who have lost their lives either as a suspected or as a confirmed case of the disease. As there is a definite possibility of the presence of the live virus in the organs of a patient who died when s/he was infectious, it becomes a mandatory requirement to ensure the provision of safety measures. In conclusion, it is of paramount importance to safely deal with the bodies of the people who have died due to COVID-19 infection. However, it becomes equally important to maintain the dignity of the dead and respect the cultural norms of the family as well as the community and at the same time taking adequate measures to ensure safety.
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